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Monday, May 20, 2024

Super Cavitation of Fuels: Creating More Efficient And Ecologically Friendly Systems

Recent advances in Super Cavitation are enabling both high performance and environmentally friendly fuels with performance enhancements catching the attention of trucking firms and other transportation hubs around the globe. We describe the commercialization of this patented technology and its practical use in multiple merchants. Our team has performed quantitative analysis of how this Super Cavitation could transform transportation infrastructure not only in the USA, but also on a global scale through a conservative estimate of up to 40% decrease of emissions.  

Cavitating diesel fuel offers several positive aspects, primarily related to its effects on engine performance:  

  1. Improved Fuel Atomization: Cavitation can break up diesel fuel into smaller droplets, leading to better atomization when injected into the combustion chamber. This finer mist can result in more efficient combustion, which can enhance engine efficiency and power output.
  2. Increased Mixing: The cavitation process can promote better mixing of fuel with air in the combustion chamber. This thorough mixing facilitates more complete combustion, potentially reducing emissions and improving fuel efficiency.
  3. Enhanced Combustion: The intense pressure and temperature conditions within cavitation bubbles can promote a more thorough combustion process, maximizing the energy extracted from the fuel and improving overall engine performance.
  4. Reduced NOx Emissions: Improved combustion efficiency resulting from cavitation can help reduce nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions, contributing to cleaner air and meeting environmental regulations.
  5. Potential for Higher Power Density: By optimizing combustion and fuel efficiency, cavitation can potentially enable diesel engines to achieve higher power densities, meaning more power output for a given engine size or weight.

It is important to note that while cavitation can offer these potential benefits, it can also lead to negative consequences if not properly controlled. Excessive cavitation can cause damage to fuel injection systems, leading to increased maintenance costs and reduced engine reliability. Additionally, controlling cavitation requires careful engineering of fuel injection systems to ensure optimal performance without compromising durability. We have spent years and have been awarded patents due to the rigorous R&D we have invested in this area.  

Testing  

Two Generators were tested with unprocessed low sulfur diesel, followed by the cavitation of the same fuel and tested again with the contents of the day tank fully cavitated,  

Executive Summary Hospital Generator Testing  

In modern DI Diesel engines, the raw emissions of NO X and SO2 are affected, apart from the fuel injection rate, by the atomization of the liquid jet and mixing of the fuel with the combustion air. Therefore, details of the fuel flow inside the injection nozzle play a critical role. The fuel flow injection of the cavitated fuel seems to be beneficial in balancing the nozzle spray fuel flow and overall efficiency of the burn by thoroughly stacking the fuel particles in the fuel at the cylinder, causing a balanced and more efficient burn.  

In general, and by definition, Cavitation is the formation of vapor cavities in a liquid, small liquid-free zones (“bubbles” or “voids”), that are the consequence of forces acting upon the liquid. It usually occurs when a liquid is subjected to rapid changes of pressure that cause the formation of cavities in the liquid where the pressure is relatively low. When subjected to higher pressure, the voids implode and can generate an intense shock wave.  

It should be noted that Cavitation is a significant cause of wear in some engineering contexts seen in general mechanics, for example. Collapsing voids that implode near to a metal surface cause cyclic stress through repeated implosion. This results in surface fatigue of the metal causing a type of wear also named “cavitation”. The most common examples of this kind of wear are to pump impellers, and bends where a sudden change in the direction of liquid occurs. Cavitation is usually divided into two classes of behavior: inertial (or transient) cavitation and non-inertial cavitation. Cavitation is usually an undesirable phenomenon. It is very often specifically avoided in the design of machines such as turbines, propellers, pumps, and eliminating cavitation is a major field in the study of fluid dynamics. However, it can be very valuable and does not cause any damage when the bubbles collapse away from machinery, such as in Super Cavitation.  

Our Fuel Process  

When we process the fuel, we commonly refer to as “cavitated fuel”, we place the fuel through a procedure called hydrodynamic cavitation. Hydrodynamic cavitation describes the process of vaporization, bubble generation and bubble implosion which occurs in the flowing fluid as a result of a decrease, and subsequent increase, in local pressure. Cavitation will only occur if the local pressure declines to some point below the saturated vapor pressure of the liquid and subsequent recovery above the vapor pressure. If the recovery pressure is not above the vapor pressure, then flashing is said to have occurred. In pipe systems, cavitation typically occurs either as the result of an increase in the kinetic energy (through an area constriction), or in other words, by passing the fuel through a constricted channel at a specific flow velocity or by mechanical rotation of an object through a liquid. In the case of the constricted channel and based on the specific (or unique) geometry of the system, the combination of pressure and kinetic energy can create the hydrodynamic cavitation cavern downstream of the local constriction generating high energy cavitation bubbles. Once the bubble generation succeeds, the fuel follows a “re stacking process” in which the fuel particles are better mixed together and oxygenated causing a more efficient mixture.  

In order to prove our technology, we proceeded to test (two) generators at a hospital facility with regular untreated fuel followed by the fuel processed by the Kavitus equipment supplied by Dillon Boiler Services, Inc. (www.jpiinternational.org)  

HOSPITAL GENERATOR TESTING  

FIGURE 1: CONVENTIONAL #2 OIL FUEL IN RUNNING GENERATOR  

Generator was run for 30 min prior to testing, once under load, a calibrated analyzer was installed in the common stack, followed by initiating the testing, which yielded the following results:  

Generator 1:  

As we see above, the engine is running a common stack temperature of 470-480°F degrees, at this rate the CO generation is at 471 ppm, with NOX at 743ppm. This properly maintained and cared for engine is running at peak performance at approximately 10% O2.  

Data was compiled, and to aid in understanding the overall condition, we proceeded to compile the Minimum, Maximum and Mean for the entire data set for Generator 1 (above).  

Figure 2: Generator 2 Emissions Data  

Figure 3: Sound Analysis of Cavitation Process  

Indicators of Cavitation:  

Once the cavitation process was started, we proceeded to measure the sound analysis of the process, which is one way of proving cavitation. Please note that the environment was causing some interference over the unit. However, the results are clear, as shown in Figure 3.  

Effects of Cavitated Fuel in Generators (See Figure 4)  

Figure 4:  

  1. Generator 1 with cavitated fuel:  

Once the day tank was processed through cavitation, we tested the generators after running for approximately 30 minutes:  

Final Comparatives:  

  1. Generator 2 with cavitated fuel:  

Once the day tank was processed through cavitation, we tested the generators after running for approximately 30 minutes:  

Final Comparatives:  

Conclusion  

Recent advances in Super Cavitation are enabling both high performance and environmentally friendly fuels with performance enhancements catching the attention of trucking firms and other transportation hubs around the globe. We describe the commercialization of this patented technology and its practical use in multiple merchants. Our team has performed quantitative analysis of how this Super Cavitation could transform transportation infrastructure not only in the USA, but also on a global scale through a conservative estimate of at least 40% decrease of emissions.  

Our analytical approach to Super Cavitation shows a real path to enhanced performance coupled with a more environmentally friendly solution than current transportation fuels. It is clear that these patented technologies are deployable immediately in the transportation sector and usable in a plethora of other markets/market segments with a conservative decrease of at least 40% of emissions. We will report on additional developments of commercialized products in the upcoming months.  

About Dillon Boiler Services, Inc.: As the leading boiler manufacturer and service provider in New England, Dillon is respected for its innovative products and services with an A-list of customers.  

About JP Industries International (JPI²): Recently written about in Forbes Magazine, JPI² is a pioneer in transportation nano-tech based products and services, filling a unique set of proven, patented solutions in multiple applications across the globe.  

author avatar
Jack McNamara, Paul Routhier and Thomas A.Cellucci
Jack McNamara - Founder and Board Member of JPI² - Founder and Board Secretary of UES and JPI², preceded with combat service in the US Navy, and since 1986, owner of Dillon Boiler Services in Fitchburg MA. After military service and college, Mr. McNamara began work as a mechanical engineer at Dillion in the mid-70s before acquiring the company, one of the most prestigious industrial brands along the East Coast, having continuously served customers since the turn of the 19th Century in the early 1800s. Mr. McNamara is recognized by several professional associations for advanced development of mechanical services, emissions management, and technical training aligned with community college and institutional programs. Paul Routhier - Founder and Chairman of the Board JPI² - Founder of UES and JPI², preceded with combat service in the US Air Force and over forty- years of success in industry spanning several market verticals. Mr. Routhier has built, owned and operated, and later profitably divested nearly a dozen small to medium-size companies. Employing and providing technical training to hundreds of individuals, his companies have made a profound difference in the lives of communities across Massachusetts and broader New England. Mr. Routhier companies have comprised a diverse set of products and services,to include recently divested his transportation companies in the New England. For 35-years, the primary regional delivery conveyer for PepsiCo and a leading heavy truck repair center. Recognized by Presidential Award, and other citations from both US and Canadian governments, for advanced achievement in environmental management and technology development associated with recycling. Mr. Routhier owns various types of real estate, holds appointed positions in community organizations and contributes to patriotic charities. TheHon.,Thomas A. Cellucci,Ph.D.,MBA CEO and Board MemberJPI² - Dr. Tom Cellucci has been a senior executive in both the private and public sectors for over 43 years to include serving as the US Government’s first-ever Chief Commercialization Officerin the Executive Branch, working for both President George W. Bush and President Barack Obama. Today, he continues to assistthe US President's team and the Joint Chiefs of Staff. Dr. Cellucci holds a PhD in Physical Chemistry from the University of Pennsylvania (1984), an MBA from Rutgers University (1991) and a BS in Chemistry from Fordham University (1980). He has authored or co- authored 29 scholarly books and over 438 high-tech business and peer- reviewed scientific articles, while also serving on 23 Boards. Tom has raised over 3.9B in public- private partnerships for the US Government and over $3.2B in the private sector.
Jack McNamara, Paul Routhier and Thomas A.Cellucci
Jack McNamara, Paul Routhier and Thomas A.Cellucci
Jack McNamara - Founder and Board Member of JPI² - Founder and Board Secretary of UES and JPI², preceded with combat service in the US Navy, and since 1986, owner of Dillon Boiler Services in Fitchburg MA. After military service and college, Mr. McNamara began work as a mechanical engineer at Dillion in the mid-70s before acquiring the company, one of the most prestigious industrial brands along the East Coast, having continuously served customers since the turn of the 19th Century in the early 1800s. Mr. McNamara is recognized by several professional associations for advanced development of mechanical services, emissions management, and technical training aligned with community college and institutional programs. Paul Routhier - Founder and Chairman of the Board JPI² - Founder of UES and JPI², preceded with combat service in the US Air Force and over forty- years of success in industry spanning several market verticals. Mr. Routhier has built, owned and operated, and later profitably divested nearly a dozen small to medium-size companies. Employing and providing technical training to hundreds of individuals, his companies have made a profound difference in the lives of communities across Massachusetts and broader New England. Mr. Routhier companies have comprised a diverse set of products and services,to include recently divested his transportation companies in the New England. For 35-years, the primary regional delivery conveyer for PepsiCo and a leading heavy truck repair center. Recognized by Presidential Award, and other citations from both US and Canadian governments, for advanced achievement in environmental management and technology development associated with recycling. Mr. Routhier owns various types of real estate, holds appointed positions in community organizations and contributes to patriotic charities. TheHon.,Thomas A. Cellucci,Ph.D.,MBA CEO and Board MemberJPI² - Dr. Tom Cellucci has been a senior executive in both the private and public sectors for over 43 years to include serving as the US Government’s first-ever Chief Commercialization Officerin the Executive Branch, working for both President George W. Bush and President Barack Obama. Today, he continues to assistthe US President's team and the Joint Chiefs of Staff. Dr. Cellucci holds a PhD in Physical Chemistry from the University of Pennsylvania (1984), an MBA from Rutgers University (1991) and a BS in Chemistry from Fordham University (1980). He has authored or co- authored 29 scholarly books and over 438 high-tech business and peer- reviewed scientific articles, while also serving on 23 Boards. Tom has raised over 3.9B in public- private partnerships for the US Government and over $3.2B in the private sector.

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