Failure to recognize the evolution of ISIS and develop appropriate policies to combat it, along with the relatively low returnee rate, runs the risk of terrorist attacks in Europe and elsewhere, yet a peaceful reintegration into society for FTFs seems possible.
Activity suggests the movement is quickly accelerating, recruiting, and promoting infrastructure damage and violence.
Despite significant counter-terrorism and disengagement efforts, al Shabaab remains very much active and pervasive.
Overstretched militarily and economically – as funds initially earmarked for combating violent extremist groups and healthcare provisions continue to be diverted to deal with the widespread pandemic – many countries fear the potential for the emergence of a new wave of violent extremism.
The imperative for Turkey’s military presence in Somalia is often explained through the lens of phased and likely future withdrawal of the AU and AMISOM peacekeeping mission from the country.